1900-1919 | Bombing villages | Pakistan | RAF crimes

The RAF drops incendiary bombs on North West Frontier villages

9 October 1919 On 9 October 1919, sixteen RAF aircraft dropped incendiary bombs on several villages near Wana in Waziristan on India’s North West Frontier. The intent was to punish the entire population, as it was suspected that some of them had participated in armed resistance against British incursions into their territory. An unforgivable crime. …

1900-1919 | Iran

British attempt to buy hegemony over Persia fails

9 August 1919 On 9 August 1919, after six months of secret negotiations between Sir Percy Cox, the acting British Minister in Tehran, and three leading Persian politicians, Prime Minister Vusuq ul-Dawleh, Foreign Minister Prince Farooz and Finance Minister, Sarem ul-Dawleh, the Anglo-Persian Agreement was announced. If it had been subsequently ratified by the Persian…

1900-1919 | Racism

‘Hideous spectacle’ of ‘a negro in khaki with a white woman’

16 July 1919 On 16 July 1919, a letter, appearing in the Hull Daily Mail, typified the racist panic which gripped Britain over the presence of black soldiers. It also clearly demonstrated the importance which many British men attached to maintaining African subservience and ostracism in Britain’s African colonies. ‘Sir, this evening I had the unpleasant experience…

1900-1919 | Afghanistan | Bombing towns & cities | RAF crimes

The R.A.F. bomb the medieval Afghan city of Jalalabad causing huge fires

20 May 1919 On 20 May 1919, R.A.F. aircraft of Number 31 squadron dropped more than a hundred bombs on the Afghan city of Jalalabad. A reminder to its population that continued refusal to accept British hegemony would have a terrifying cost. Afghanistan was then in its third week of a war,  an attempt to…

1900-1919 | Bombing towns & cities | Bombing villages | India | RAF crimes

The R.A.F. strafe and bomb a school and crowds at Gujranwala

14 April 1919 On 14 April 1919, Michael O’Dwyer, Lieutenant Governor of the Punjab, gave orders that RAF aircraft should be sent to terminate anti-British protests in the town of Gujranwala. That morning large crowds, angered by the reports of the massacre by British troops of over 300 protesters at Amritsar the day before, set fire…

1900-1919 | Civilians slaughtered | India

General Dyer orders the killing of hundreds of unarmed Indian protesters

13 April 1919 At about 5.30 pm on 13 April 1919, Brigadier-General Reginald Dyer ordered his troops to open fire on a peaceful rally of several thousand men, women and children protesting against British rule in India. They had gathered at Jallianwala Bagh, a walled area of unused land in the city of Amritsar in…