Punitive operations | 1800-1859 | Collective punishments | Oman

Large areas of Khasab destroyed by British warships

20 APRIL 1930 At 1000 hours on 20 April 1930, HMS Lupin and HMS Cyclamen, two British Arabis class warships opened fire on the town of Khasab, situated on the mountainous coast of Oman’s Musandam Peninsula which juts out into the Straits of Hormuz. The bombardment was focused on a central area of the town…

1920-1939 | Civilians slaughtered | Massacres | Pakistan | Uncategorized

Machine guns turned on unarmed Peshawar crowd killing up to 400

[ 23 April 1930 ] On 23 April 1930, British and Gurkha troops opened fire on an unarmed crowd in Peshawar killing at least 20, according to the official estimate, and as many as 400, according to Indian sources.1 A large crowd had gathered at the Qissa Khwani Bazaar to protest the arrest that morning of…

1930-1939 | India

Hundreds injured – two killed – as Gandhi’s followers are beaten with lathis

[ 21 May 1930 ] Since the British had begun to extend their rule over India in the eighteenth century, they had relied on various forms of local taxation to pay for the soldiers and administrative apparatus, which ensured that India remained part of the Empire and that wealth continued to flow westwards to London,…

1920-1939 | Bombing villages | Collective punishments | Pakistan | Punitive operations | RAF crimes

Biggles author on bombing North West Frontier villages for non-payment of fines

30 August 1930 On 30 August 1930, W.E. Johns, an R.A.F. captain and author of the Biggles adventure series,  published an article for the weekly illustrated newspaper The Graphic, under the headline ‘Bombing the Afridis.’ He recounted how entire tribal areas on India’s North West Frontier would be bombed intensively as a collective punishment for failing to pay a…

1920-1939 | Bombing villages | Media propaganda | Pakistan | RAF crimes

RAF starts nine day bombing campaign against Afridi villages

4 August 1930 On 4 August 1930, the R.A.F. commenced a nine day bombing campaign, deploying over 70 aircraft on 1,835 hours of sorties against Afridi villages, deemed to be unfriendly. Most of the settlements were located in the Bara Valley in the remote North West Frontier region of British India, although the surrounding valleys…