1900-1919 | Bombing villages | Collective punishments | Livestock targeted | Pakistan | Punitive operations

Three Waziri villages destroyed – 5600 cattle seized

[ 29 November 1902 ] On 29 November 1902, a Reuters correspondent at Peshawar on India’s North West Frontier reported on ‘a punitive expedition’ against the Kabul Khels, a Waziri ethnic group, for previous raids into British held territory. He boasted that as a result of a four pronged invasion of the area by four columns of…

1900-1919 | Bombing villages | Pakistan | RAF crimes

The RAF drops incendiary bombs on North West Frontier villages

9 October 1919 On 9 October 1919, sixteen RAF aircraft dropped incendiary bombs on several villages near Wana in Waziristan on India’s North West Frontier. The intent was to punish the entire population, as it was suspected that some of them had participated in armed resistance against British incursions into their territory. An unforgivable crime. …

1860-1899 | Burning crops | Burning villages | Churchill's crimes | Collective punishments | Punitive operations | Starvation campaigns

Winston Churchill participates in a punitive operation, destroying an entire valley of villages

15 September 1897 On 15 September 1897, Lieutenant Winston S. Churchill, who was temporarily freelancing as a war correspondent, joined a punitive British military expedition, under Major General Sir Bindon Blood, as it began to move against the Mamunds of the Watelai Valley on India’s North West Frontier. The provocation had been an attack the…

1920-1939 | Bombing villages | Collective punishments | Pakistan | Punitive operations | RAF crimes

Biggles author on bombing North West Frontier villages for non-payment of fines

30 August 1930 On 30 August 1930, W.E. Johns, an R.A.F. captain and author of the Biggles adventure series,  published an article for the weekly illustrated newspaper The Graphic, under the headline ‘Bombing the Afridis.’ He recounted how entire tribal areas on India’s North West Frontier would be bombed intensively as a collective punishment for failing to pay a…

1920-1939 | Bombing villages | Media propaganda | Pakistan | RAF crimes

RAF starts nine day bombing campaign against Afridi villages

4 August 1930 On 4 August 1930, the R.A.F. commenced a nine day bombing campaign, deploying over 70 aircraft on 1,835 hours of sorties against Afridi villages, deemed to be unfriendly. Most of the settlements were located in the Bara Valley in the remote North West Frontier region of British India, although the surrounding valleys…

1900-1919 | Burning crops | Burning villages | Collective punishments | Pakistan | Punitive operations

Valley of villages and crops burned in Waziristan

24 June 1917 On 24 June 1917, a punitive  military expedition began burning the villages and crops of the Mahsud people in the Khaisara Valley on the North West Frontier. The British Army considered it a necessary collective punishment to deter raids into British held territory in India, explaining that it was ‘an act of…

1920-1939 | Burning villages | Pakistan | Punitive operations

6 APRIL

‘RECALCITRANT’ WAZIRI VILLAGES BURNED [ 6 April 1920 ] On 6 April 1920, the British Army’s high command on India’s North West Frontier (close to today’s Afghan-Pakistan border) initiated punitive military operations against Waziri villages along the Baddar Toi Valley. The inhabitants had failed to surrender the demanded quota of rifles and other collective fines…